An update on research and clinical management

Although endemic to Canada, Brucella canis is an elusive infectious agent of unknown significance to most practitioners. Clinical disease attributed to Brucella canis infection occurs sporadically, reinforcing the perception that the disease is uncommon in Canada compared with other regions of North America such as Mexico and the southeastern USA. Seroprevalence rates in the southeastern USA are estimated to be 7% to 8% . Earlier reports from Quebec (1970’s) and southwestern Ontario (1980) still serve as the main Canadian seroprevalence data with rates of 1.6% and 0.3%, respectively . There is currently a paucity of seroprevalence studies in western Canada, but outbreaks have been observed in a Saskatchewan kennel and the Calgary, Alberta area .

With the unprecedented rates of animals moving across international borders and the lack of federal regulation, canine brucellosis may be changing its geographical distribution. In 1988, a Canadian Veterinary Journal article documented the identification of 2 strains, an American type strain RM66 and a Mexican strain Mex 51, in 11 Brucella canis  Genprice Gentaur isolates from Canadian dogs.

Characterization of the current circulating strains is warranted.

  • Until this information is available, Canadian veterinarians should be aware of the agent and consider it as a reasonable differential diagnosis in appropriate cases, regardless of historical information, or neuter status. In Canada, Brucella canis remains a potentially devastating infectious agent that is still considered uncommon, despite the increasing international movement of dogs.
  • There may be a growing risk to the Canadian canine population due to a reliance on outdated seroprevalence studies and the lack of federal regulation.
  • With the complex diagnostic and management challenges associated with Brucella canis, a One Health approach is necessary to address the need for ongoing research, including updating canine and human seroprevalence rates in Canada, elucidating the pathogenesis, and determining the most appropriate treatment and prevention strategies.
  • Clinical management decisions are often complicated by currently available treatment protocols, and health risks to both canine and human populations. This article integrates recent research focusing on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of Brucella canis , and outlines current clinical management approaches.

Etiology

Bacteria in the genus Brucella are nonmotile, nonencapsulated, non-spore-forming, facultatively intracellular Gram-negative coccobacilli or short rods . Four of the six classical Brucella species are known to cause disease in dogs and humans: Brucella canis (natural reservoir animal is the dog), Brucella melitensis (sheep, goats), Brucella suis (pigs), and Brucella abortus (cattle, bison, buffalo) . The remaining 2 of the 6 classical Brucella species [Brucella neotomae (rodents, desert rats) and Brucella ovis (sheep)] are not associated with disease in dogs. Additional Brucella species including both terrestrial forms (B. microti, B. inopinata) and marine forms (B. maris, B. pinnipediae, B. ceti) are of uncertain pathogenicity to dogs.

Brucella canis was discovered in 1966–1967 during an investigation of abortion in beagles, in which the organism was isolated from aborted tissues and vaginal discharge . Brucella canis was initially thought to be a biotype of Brucella suis based on genotypic and phenotypic similarities . The significance of this distinction is paramount to the Canadian swine industry and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) as Canada is considered free of Brucella suis biovar 3 . Differentiation between Brucella canis and Brucella suis biovar 3 can be challenging . A multiplex conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been optimized to differentiate between these Brucella species .

The host range for Brucella canis is predominantly domestic dogs, but other species have been investigated. Serologic studies of wild canids have documented positive antibody titers in foxes and coyotes . Experimental studies involving conjunctival and oral inoculation of cattle, swine, and sheep with B. canis showed that these host species were highly resistant to B. canis infection, despite 2 field reports of B. canis in cattle . Similarly, oral experimental infection of cats documented transient bacteremia in 3/14 but none developed agglutinating antibody titers .

 

Transmission Major routes of transmission for this venereally transmitted agent are genital, conjunctival, and oronasal mucosae, as occurs during normal reproductive, social, and grooming activities in dogs .

The primary sources of transmission are reproductive fluids: vaginal discharges and semen. Tissues and fluids associated with the fetus, the placenta, and the vagina after abortion or stillbirth have approximately 106 organisms/mL . Shedding of the organism occurs in vulvar secretions for up to 6 wk after abortion and during estrus . In males, semen has high concentrations of the bacterium for 6 to 8 wk after infection . The agent is then shed intermittently for up to 2 y at lower concentrations in semen which remains an important source of infection for other dogs . The minimum infectious dose is approximately 106 organisms/mL via the oral route and 104 to 105 organisms/mL by the conjunctival route . Minor routes of transmission include in utero, broken skin, blood transfusions, feces, milk, and fomites such as contaminated syringes, vaginoscopes, and artificial insemination equipment .

Brucella bacteria attach to mucous membranes, penetrate the epithelial barrier, and are taken up by the mononuclear phagocytic system, where they reside intracellularly. This is accomplished by utilizing virulence factors presumably via the type IV secretory system, and inhibiting the bactericidal myeloperoxidase-peroxide-halide system through the release of 5-guanosine and adenine .

The intracellular organisms then travel through the reticuloendothelial system to local lymph nodes (retropharyngeal, inguinal, superficial iliac), liver, spleen, and possibly bone marrow. After 7 to 30 d, the bacteria move into the blood stream to cause intermittent bacteremia. The organism targets “steroid-dependent” reproductive tissues, including the prostate, testicles, epididymides, gravid uterus, and placenta . Evaluation of a Saskatchewan kennel outbreak of brucellosis found that the progestational, non-gravid uterus was also a reservoir for the bacterium . A mixed inflammatory response consisting of lymphocytes, plasmacytes, and histiocytes has been observed in these reproductive tissues . Focal coagulative necrosis of the chorionic villi, necrotizing arteritis, and numerous bacteria in trophoblastic epithelial cells can be found in the aborted placenta .

Dog Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) Rapid Test Kit

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Brucella IgA ELISA Kit

ESR116A Genovis AB 96 Tests 372 EUR

Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

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Brucella IgM ELISA Kit

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Brucella Antigen Rapid Test Kit

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Brucella Antigen Rapid Test Kit

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Brucella Antigen Rapid Test Kit

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Brucella Antibody Rapid Test Kit

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Brucella abortus Antigen

BA116VS Genovis AB 1mg 869 EUR

Brucella IgA Control Serum

C116A Genovis AB 3 mL 105 EUR

Brucella IgG Control Serum

C116G Genovis AB 3 mL 105 EUR

Brucella IgM Control Serum

C116M Genovis AB 3 mL 105 EUR

Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) Rapid Test Kit

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Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) Rapid Test Kit

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Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) Rapid Test Kit

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Cow Brucella Antibody Rapid Test Kit

abx092071-40tests Abbexa 40 tests 427.2 EUR

Goat Brucella Antibody Rapid Test Kit

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Brucella antigen rapid test card

LSY-20076-2 Shenzhen Lvshiyuan Biotechnology 40 test/kit Ask for price

Goat Brucella Antibody Rapid Test

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Bovine Brucella Antibody Rapid Test

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Camel Brucella Antibody Ab(Brucella-Ab)ELISA Kit

SL0041Cm Sunlong - Ask for price

Human Brucella Antibody Ab(Brucella-Ab)ELISA Kit

SL3349Hu Sunlong 96 Tests 468 EUR

Bovine and goat Brucella Antibody Rapid Test (also work for pig, dog, deer)

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Bovine Brucella IgG (Brucella-Ab) Elisa Kit

EK760017 AFG Bioscience LLC 96 Wells 0.89 EUR

Pig Brucella antibody (Brucella-Ab) ELISA Kit

AE64570PI-48Tests Abebio 48 Tests 360 EUR

Pig Brucella antibody (Brucella-Ab) ELISA Kit

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Goat Brucella antibody(Brucella-Ab)ELISA Kit

SL0071Gt Sunlong - Ask for price

Sheep Brucella Antibody Ab(Brucella-Ab)ELISA Kit定性

SL00035Sp Sunlong - 528 EUR

Canine Brucella antibody(Brucella-Ab)ELISA Kit

SL0106Ca Sunlong - Ask for price

Dog brucella antibody (IgG) Elisa kit

EK762116 AFG Bioscience LLC 96 Wells 0.94 EUR

Dog brucella antibody (IgG) ELISA kit

CSB-EQ027847DO-24T Cusabio 1 plate of 24 wells 198 EUR

Dog brucella antibody (IgG) ELISA kit

1-CSB-EQ027847DO Cusabio
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  • 1 plate of 96 wells
  • 10 plates of 96 wells each
  • 5 plates of 96 wells each

Bovine Brucella antibody(Brucella-Ab)ELISA Kit定性

SL0054Bo Sunlong - 528 EUR

Human Brucella Antibody IgG,Brucella Ab IgG ELISA Kit

201-12-1740 SunredBio 96 tests 528 EUR

Human Brucella Antibody IgG(Brucella Ab IgG)ELISA Kit

GA-E1756HM-48T GenAsia Biotech 48T 346.8 EUR

Human Brucella Antibody IgG(Brucella Ab IgG)ELISA Kit

GA-E1756HM-96T GenAsia Biotech 96T 559.2 EUR

Human Brucella Antibody IgG(Brucella Ab IgG)ELISA Kit

QY-E04066 Qayee Biotechnology 96T 433.2 EUR

Bovine Brucella Antibody IgG, Brucella Ab IgG ELISA Kit

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Porcine brucella antibody IgG(brucella Ab IgG)ELISA Kit

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Porcine brucella antibody IgG(brucella Ab IgG)ELISA Kit

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Goat Brucella IgG antibody (Brucella-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit

AE63393GO-48Tests Abebio 48 Tests 305 EUR

Goat Brucella IgG antibody (Brucella-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella Antibody IgM (Brucella-Ab-IgM) ELISA Kit

EK12261 SAB 96Т 799 EUR

Human Brucella Antibody IgA (Brucella-Ab-IgA) ELISA Kit

EK12262 SAB 96Т 799 EUR

Human Brucella Antibody IgM (Brucella-Ab-IgM) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella Antibody IgM (Brucella-Ab-IgM) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella Antibody IgA (Brucella-Ab-IgA) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella Antibody IgA (Brucella-Ab-IgA) ELISA Kit

AE63319HU-96Tests Abebio 96 Tests 680 EUR

Human Brucella Antibody IgG (Brucella-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit

AE62416HU-48Tests Abebio 48 Tests 360 EUR

Human Brucella Antibody IgG (Brucella-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit

AE62416HU-96Tests Abebio 96 Tests 680 EUR

Bovine Brucella IgG antibody (Brucella-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit

AE62229BO-48Tests Abebio 48 Tests 360 EUR

Bovine Brucella IgG antibody (Brucella-Ab-IgG) ELISA Kit

AE62229BO-96Tests Abebio 96 Tests 680 EUR

ELISA kit for Human Brucella Antibody IgM (Brucella-Ab-IgM)

KTE62702-48T Abbkine 48T 424.8 EUR

ELISA kit for Human Brucella Antibody IgM (Brucella-Ab-IgM)

KTE62702-5platesof96wells Abbkine 5 plates of 96 wells 2702.4 EUR

ELISA kit for Human Brucella Antibody IgM (Brucella-Ab-IgM)

KTE62702-96T Abbkine 96T 686.4 EUR

ELISA kit for Human Brucella Antibody IgA (Brucella-Ab-IgA)

KTE62703-48T Abbkine 48T 424.8 EUR

ELISA kit for Human Brucella Antibody IgA (Brucella-Ab-IgA)

KTE62703-5platesof96wells Abbkine 5 plates of 96 wells 2702.4 EUR

ELISA kit for Human Brucella Antibody IgA (Brucella-Ab-IgA)

KTE62703-96T Abbkine 96T 686.4 EUR

Bovine Brucella Abbortus IgG Antibody(Brucella Abbortus IgG Ab)ELISA Kit

NSL1427Bo Sunlong 96 T 528 EUR

Bovine Brucella Melitenses IgG Antibody(Brucella Melitenses IgG Ab) ELISA Kit

NSL1428Bo Sunlong 96 T 528 EUR

Human Brucella Abbortus IgG Anti-body(Brucella Abbortus IgG Ab) ELISA Kit

NSL0794Hu Sunlong 96 wells 468 EUR

Human Brucella Melitenses IgG Anti-body(Brucella Melitenses IgG Ab) ELISA Kit

NSL0793Hu Sunlong 96 wells 468 EUR

Bovine Brucella IgA, Brucella IgA ELISA Kit

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Porcine Brucella IgG,Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

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Canine Brucella IgM (Brucella-IgM) ELISA Kit

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Bovine Brucella Antibody IgM (Brucella-IgM) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella abortus IgM(Brucella abortus IgM) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella abortus IgM(Brucella abortus IgM) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella abortus IgG(Brucella abortus IgG) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella abortus IgG(Brucella abortus IgG) ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella abortus IgG(Brucella abortus IgG)ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella abortus IgG(Brucella abortus IgG)ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella-Antibody-c,B-AB-c ELISA Kit

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Human Brucella-Antibody-c,B-AB-c ELISA Kit

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Brucella spp. PCR kit

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Brucella spp. PCR kit

PCR-VH200-96D Bioingentech 100T 686.4 EUR

Brucella suis PCR kit

PCR-H503-48D Bioingentech 50T 543.6 EUR

Brucella suis PCR kit

PCR-H503-96D Bioingentech 100T 686.4 EUR

Brucella ovis PCR kit

PCR-V317-48D Bioingentech 50T 543.6 EUR

Brucella ovis PCR kit

PCR-V317-96D Bioingentech 100T 686.4 EUR

Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

E4709-100 Biovision each 810 EUR

Brucella IgM ELISA Kit

E4710-100 Biovision each 810 EUR

Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

DEIA320 Creative Diagnostics 96T 733.2 EUR

Brucella IgA ELISA Kit

DEIA321 Creative Diagnostics 96T 733.2 EUR

Brucella IgM ELISA Kit

DEIA322 Creative Diagnostics 96T 733.2 EUR

Cow Brucella ELISA Kit

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Brucella canis PCR kit

PCR-VH075-48D Bioingentech 50T 543.6 EUR

Brucella canis PCR kit

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Cow Brucella ELISA Kit

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Cow Brucella ELISA Kit

abx055570-10g Abbexa 10 µg 493.75 EUR

Cow Brucella ELISA Kit

abx055570-50g Abbexa 50 µg Ask for price

Goat Brucella ELISA Kit

SL0048Gt Sunlong - Ask for price

Goat Brucella ELISA Kit

abx055911-100g Abbexa 100 µg Ask for price

Goat Brucella ELISA Kit

abx055911-10g Abbexa 10 µg 493.75 EUR

Goat Brucella ELISA Kit

abx055911-50g Abbexa 50 µg Ask for price

Brucella abortus PCR kit

PCR-VH184-48D Bioingentech 50T 543.6 EUR

Brucella abortus PCR kit

PCR-VH184-96D Bioingentech 100T 686.4 EUR

Sheep Brucella ELISA Kit

SL00036Sp Sunlong - 528 EUR

Camel Brucella ELISA Kit

SL0005Cm Sunlong - 528 EUR

Human Brucella ELISA Kit

SL3202Hu Sunlong 96 Tests 468 EUR

Camel Brucella ELISA Kit

abx157263-100g Abbexa 100 µg Ask for price

Camel Brucella ELISA Kit

abx157263-10g Abbexa 10 µg 493.75 EUR

Camel Brucella ELISA Kit

abx157263-50g Abbexa 50 µg Ask for price

Sheep Brucella ELISA Kit

abx055651-100g Abbexa 100 µg Ask for price

Sheep Brucella ELISA Kit

abx055651-10g Abbexa 10 µg 493.75 EUR

Sheep Brucella ELISA Kit

abx055651-50g Abbexa 50 µg Ask for price

Bovine Brucella Elisa Kit

EK760016 AFG Bioscience LLC 96 Wells 0.89 EUR

Canine Brucella ELISA Kit

SL0105Ca Sunlong - Ask for price

Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) ELISA Kit

abx364917-100g Abbexa 100 µg 493.75 EUR

Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) ELISA Kit

abx365011-100g Abbexa 100 µg 493.75 EUR

Brucella spp. RT PCR kit

RTq-VH200-100D Bioingentech 100T 860.4 EUR

Brucella spp. RT PCR kit

RTq-VH200-150D Bioingentech 150T 969.6 EUR

Brucella spp. RT PCR kit

RTq-VH200-50D Bioingentech 50T 717.6 EUR

Brucella suis RT PCR kit

RTq-H503-100D Bioingentech 100T 860.4 EUR

Brucella suis RT PCR kit

RTq-H503-150D Bioingentech 150T 969.6 EUR

Brucella suis RT PCR kit

RTq-H503-50D Bioingentech 50T 717.6 EUR

Brucella ovis RT PCR kit

RTq-V317-100D Bioingentech 100T 860.4 EUR

Brucella ovis RT PCR kit

RTq-V317-150D Bioingentech 150T 969.6 EUR

Brucella ovis RT PCR kit

RTq-V317-50D Bioingentech 50T 717.6 EUR

Brucella Antibody ELISA Kit

RK04106 Abclonal 96T 625.2 EUR

Brucella melitensis PCR kit

PCR-V205-48D Bioingentech 50T 543.6 EUR

Brucella melitensis PCR kit

PCR-V205-96D Bioingentech 100T 686.4 EUR

Brucella canis RT PCR kit

RTq-VH075-100D Bioingentech 100T 860.4 EUR

Brucella canis RT PCR kit

RTq-VH075-150D Bioingentech 150T 969.6 EUR

Brucella canis RT PCR kit

RTq-VH075-50D Bioingentech 50T 717.6 EUR

Rat Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

SL1597Ra Sunlong - Ask for price

Rat Brucella IgM ELISA Kit

SL1598Ra Sunlong - Ask for price

Cow Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

abx055571-100g Abbexa 100 µg Ask for price

Cow Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

abx055571-10g Abbexa 10 µg 493.75 EUR

Cow Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

abx055571-50g Abbexa 50 µg Ask for price

Brucella abortus RT PCR kit

RTq-VH184-100D Bioingentech 100T 860.4 EUR

Brucella abortus RT PCR kit

RTq-VH184-150D Bioingentech 150T 969.6 EUR

Brucella abortus RT PCR kit

RTq-VH184-50D Bioingentech 50T 717.6 EUR

Sheep Brucella Antibody IgG, Brucella-IgG ELISA K

SL00142Sp Sunlong - Ask for price

Cow Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) ELISA Kit

abx157258-100g Abbexa 100 µg Ask for price

Cow Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) ELISA Kit

abx157258-10g Abbexa 10 µg 618.75 EUR

Cow Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) ELISA Kit

abx157258-50g Abbexa 50 µg 2950 EUR

Cow Brucella Antibody (Anti-Brucella) ELISA Kit

abx364922-100g Abbexa 100 µg 493.75 EUR

Brucella IgG

GWB-3C0D26 GenWay Biotech 1x96 Assays Ask for price

Brucella IgG

DEBRUG0050 Demeditec Diagnostics 96 92 EUR

Brucella IgM

DEBRUM0050 Demeditec Diagnostics 96 92 EUR

Brucella vet

DEBRUVT0050 Demeditec Diagnostics 96 125 EUR

Brucella IgM

GWB-CA1F47 GenWay Biotech 1x96 Assays Ask for price

Brucella spp.

Oneq-VH200-OneqVH200100D Bioingentech Oneq-VH200-100D 515 EUR

Brucella spp.

Oneq-VH200-OneqVH200150D Bioingentech Oneq-VH200-150D 594 EUR

Brucella spp.

Oneq-VH200-OneqVH20050D Bioingentech Oneq-VH200-50D 413 EUR

Brucella spp.

PCR-VH200-PCRVH20048D Bioingentech PCR-VH200-48D 230 EUR

Brucella spp.

PCR-VH200-PCRVH20096D Bioingentech PCR-VH200-96D 312 EUR

ELISA kit for Sheep Brucella  Kit

KTE110085-48T Abbkine 48T 424.8 EUR

ELISA kit for Sheep Brucella  Kit

KTE110085-5platesof96wells Abbkine 5 plates of 96 wells 2702.4 EUR

ELISA kit for Sheep Brucella  Kit

KTE110085-96T Abbkine 96T 686.4 EUR

Human Brucella IgG Elisa Kit

EK700373 AFG Bioscience LLC 96 Wells 0.35 EUR

Human Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

SL0378Hu Sunlong 96 Tests 468 EUR

Camel Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

SL0055Cm Sunlong - Ask for price

Human Brucella IgM ELISA Kit

SL2196Hu Sunlong 96 Tests 468 EUR

Human Brucella IgA ELISA Kit

SL2197Hu Sunlong 96 Tests 468 EUR

Human Brucella IgG ELISA Kit

abx051893-100g Abbexa 100 µg Ask for price

Establishing a diagnosis can be challenging due to the wide spectrum of clinical manifestations reported and the limitations of available diagnostic tests. The intent of this article is to familiarize clinical, public health, and research veterinarians with the etiology, transmission, pathogenesis, course of infection, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and public health aspects of the disease.

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